Q1. What is the principle of RBone?

RBone is a kind of semi-rigid type mechanical high ductility aseismic device, which plays a role similar to a non-failure universal pivot joint. It will keep the rigid structure of the building during small or medium earthquake. But when the structure of the building confronted a great force caused by a huge earthquake, RBone will work like a physical joint, partially decreases internal force of building, and reduces damage risk of structural columns.


Q2. What is the effectiveness of RBone?

RBone has two characteristics.
① Non-failure Universal Pivot Joint: Sway motion of superstructure subject to seismic force will make base plates open and close, and bring rotation as well. This phenomenon can significantly reduce the concentrating bending moment.
② RBone can enhance the aseismic performance of key structure members of building through the Elasto-Plasticized characteristics of steel. (Energy dissipation effect)
Even in the case of severe earthquake with intensity 7, the bottom part of columns at first floor will not immediately damage severely. RBone can enhance aseismic performance of buildings up to intensity 7 or even stronger earthquake.


Q3. What kind of structures can be applied to?

RC, SRC, SC, RC to SRC and RC to SC, all kinds of structures can be applied to.


Q4. Can RBone be used in Inverse construction method?

Yes. RBone can be used in all kinds of construction methods, and in most of cases, basically the construction procedure will not change.


Q5. Is there any limit on the building height? Can high-rise building or pencil-shaped building be applied as well?

There is no limit on the building height. RBone is a completely customized product, is designed based on various demands drived by professional structural engineer, including axial force, tensile, shear force and bending moment. In addition, RBone can also respond adequately subject to axial force variation (high axial force and high tensile), which happens very often in high-rise buildings and pencil-shaped buildings. Buildings with RBone will be highly secured.


Q6. In addition to general buildings, is it possible to apply RBone device to public construction or civil engineering works?

RBone Of course. RBone has wide and broad applications. Not only the general housing complex and commercial buildings, but also large scale public architecture and civil engineering fields, such as substructures of railway, highway, bridge and piers of elevated road bridge etc. can be applied to. RBone suits perfectly for those projects that have high level demand on high aseismic performance.


Q7. Does it need to use special machine or equipment in the constructions of structure with RBone?

The implementation of RBone is relatively easy. It needs neither special equipment nor well-training workers. Please refer to the section of [Manufacture & Implementation] to learn more.

Q8. Any special space is required?

RBone will be mounted on structural column directly. Hence, no special space is required.


Q9. How about maintenance requirement issue?

RBone device will be tightly connected to the reinforcement of the column, then be formed into an entire structure concretely. There is no need and no way to maintain.


Q10. RBone will not only reduce the bending moment on joint node, but also transfer some force up to upper floors. How about the redistribution of internal force, and is it necessary to redesign the whole structure?

In 1885, Saint-Venant , a French structural mechanics, issued a theory called “local effect principle”. It described that, a loading force which is distributed in a small area (or volume) of elastic body, will cause an internal force. Basically, the internal force of the place, which is distant away from the loading area, is only decided by the resultant force and the moment of the load. The distribution of loading force will only affect the internal force distribution near the loading area. More than 100 years, many scholars have studied the correctness of Saint-Venant's principle, and found that it can be established in most of the practical problems.

In other words, semi-rigid system will only affect the stress distribution of columns and beams which are near by the joint node. But the stress in other columns and beams barely change. We also can get the same answer from the static analysis of structure.


Q11. In addition to protecting the building in unexpected severe earthquake, is there any other benefits?

RBone will redistribute the internal force at 1F and 1MF columns. Some of the forces will be transferred to the upper part of structural columns, make the force distribution getting more rational.


Q12. Any difference between RBone and SMRF(Special Moment Resistant Frame)?

Using RBone device makes it possible to construct a kind of SRDS(Semi-Rigid Ductility Structure). However, SRDS is relatively new structure type, is different with traditional SMRF structure.


Q13. How to model RBone device in structural analysis?

In short, RBone is equivalent to an articulation with rotational spring. So It cannot turn freely, there still have moment and forces, such as axial force, shear force and bending moment. But we should add on one condition, that is, the bending moment comes from its rotational spring. Therefore, we shall put in the concept, i.e. Μ=Κθ, K is rotational stiffness, θ is rotation angle. Put it into your mind, the rotational stiffness is the key point for RBone.


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